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What Founder of the Qin Dynasty Ruled with an Iron Fist and Believed in Legalism

Measure-type public standards for the use of names (administrative standards or employment contracts) can “plausibly make it difficult for wise ministers to lie, (or) superficial speakers, to co-opt people (or the leader) with sophistry. [They allow] to correct the errors of superiors, to detect errors, to control surpluses and to unify standards. Laws alone cannot prevent the ruler from being deceived or deceived. The ruler needs Fa. Han Fei`s arguments in favor of the “rule of law” (Fa) would not have as much persuasive power as without the Fa, without which its goals cannot be achieved. [77] [14]: 367 It rejects Confucian Li, scientific interpretation and opinion, knowledge of the world and reputation: models must be measured, dissolving behavior and conflicts of distinction in practical application. [14]: 366 Qin Shi Huang (Qin Shihuang, Shi Huangdi, Shih Huang Ti, Emperor Qin, and other variants and spellings) built an impressive fighting force, exemplified by the famous Terracotta Army in Xian. His armies were believed to resemble the terracotta armies excavated near his grave. In the front position were archers who could rain arrows on their enemies from a considerable distance. Behind them were cavalry, infantry and tank units that gathered at the weakest points of their enemies. Tank reserve forces were positioned to intervene if necessary. Dr. Eno wrote: Li Si`s plan “led to a transformation of China that was perhaps the most sudden, widespread, fundamental and enduring social revolution in history. In the first months of Qin`s reign, a new administrative map of China was drawn, dividing the country into 36 military districts called “commanderies”.

Each commandery was administered by a military governor whose main objective was to regulate his share in a system of garrisons established throughout the empire, with particular attention to areas attacked by non-Chinese nomads. [Source: Robert Eno, Indiana University /+/ ] Fajia and Mohists were particularly concerned about the emergence of discussions polarizing the concepts of self and private commonly used in relation to profit and associated with fragmentation, division, partisanship and one-sidedness, with those of the state and the “public”, represented by the duke and linked to what is official or royal. That is, the leader himself, associated with unity, wholeness, objectivity and universality. The latter refers to the “Universal Way”. [105] Legalism and mohism are characterized by this concern for objectivity. [106] Harvard historian Peter Bol credits Qin Shi Huang with establishing the world`s first truly centralized bureaucratic empire. “He set out to unify the procedures, customs and policies of all states,” Bol said. “The Scriptures are gathered. And the fact that Chinese writing remains uniform after this point has everything to do with Qin Shi Huang. The axle widths are now all the same, so that all roads can now be passable.

He also travels to famous mountains where stelae are erected, stone monuments that say that the emperor`s empire is now completely united. “His idea was that every region should have a competent administrator who was armed with rules and cared about people. People knew all the rules,” says Wood. “He collected taxes, administered the judicial system, and trained bureaucrats all over China. I think that`s an extraordinary achievement. ==”It was the First Emperor himself who determined his title. He liked “August`s” ring, so he kept it. But he seems to want to maintain a connection with the ancient wise emperors, and so he has ordered that he be known as the “August Emperor” rather than the “Great Augustness.” In addition, he noted that it was inappropriate to continue Zhou`s practice of posthumously giving deceased rulers a title indicating their virtue or the manner of their reign, titles such as “Wen,” “Wu,” “Huan,” etc. “This allows the son to judge the father and the subjects ruling them,” he exclaimed. “This is highly inappropriate!” Instead, he insisted that all Qin emperors up to the thousandth and ten thousandth generation be counted and not named. However, he himself would not have a figure.

He would be known as the “original” emperor, while his successor would be known as the “second-generation emperor” (note that this way, in an endless line of Qin rulers, there would only be one whose name would stand out). Frustrated by China`s inability to reconstitute itself in a modern world as a “powerful state with a powerful military,” young intellectuals began to seek a variety of non-traditional answers to domestic and foreign policy challenges; Among these, some have turned to legalism. It was deemed relevant not only because it had proven itself in the past, but also because of its innovative strength, its willingness to deviate from the models of the past, and even its quasi-scientific perspective. For example, the first great proclaimer interested in Shang Yang`s thought, Mai Menghua 麥夢華 (1874-1915), was positively attracted by the surprising similarity between Shang Yang`s views on history and the evolutionary ideas of Western social theorists; and he identified parallels in Lord Shang`s book with Western ideas of imperialism, nationalism, statism (guojiazhuyi國家主義) and even the rule of law (Li Yu-ning 1977: lviii-lix). Even such a prominent liberal thinker as Hu Shi 胡適 (1891-1962) was willing to forgive the legalists for their notorious harshness and oppression, praising Han Fei and Li Si for their “courageous spirit of resistance to those who `do not make the present their master, but learn from the past`” (Hu Shi 1930: 6,480-81).